Welcome To The World of IAARR - the publishers of Afrrev journals ISSN 1994-9057 (Print) ISSN 2070--0083 (Online)

STECH: ISSN 2225-8612 (Print) ISSN 2227-5444 (Online)

STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology is a peer-reviewed journal of interdisciplinary scientific research, theories, and observations. STECH is a semi-annual publication of International Association of African Researchers and Reviewers (IAARR). The mission of this journal is to provide a platform for the dissemination of scientific research and theory across the academic disciplines. We seek to facilitate greater communication between the scientific assembly in Africa and the larger scientific community. To this end, STECH provides a platform for research conducted both inside and outside of Africa. The journal is provided strictly in the spirit of academic and scientific discourse and in support of our mission of improving the human condition and researches in Africa.

Editor-in-chief
Prof. Belay Kassa
Professor of Agricultural Economics
Interim Deputy Rector, Pan African University
Human Resources, Science & Technology Department
African Union Commission, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
E-mail: belayk@hotmail.com

Editors
Prof. Fathi Bashier
Department of Architecture, Urban Planning & Development
Faculty of Engineering & Technology,
Wollega University, Ethiopia
E-mail: fatibashier@yahoo.com &fatibashier@gmail.com
Mob: ++251 9 368 83917 (Ethiopia), ++249 910517774 (Sudan)

Prof J. O. Ogbuagu – FICCON, FCAI, FISMN,
Provost, Federal College of Education (Technical)
Umunze, Anambra State, Nigeria

Prof Venkata Ramayya
Mechanical Engineering Dept,
Jimma University, Ethiopia.
E-mail: anchaven@yahoo.com

Dr. C. Arum
Department of Civil Engineering,
Federal University of Technology, Akure
E-mail: arumwchrist@yahoo.com

Dr. O. E. Olubusoye
Department of Statistics,
University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Engr. Dr Wubishet Jekale
Director, Construction Sector, Capacity Building Programme (CSCBP), Department of Construction Management,
Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.

Dr Nigussie Haregewgn
Dept of Land Resources Mgt and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Dryland Agriculture
Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

Dr Dessie Nedaw
Department of Geology, Faculty of Science and Technology,
Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

Dr Kefelegn Kebede
Department of Animal, Range Land & Wildlife Science
Faculty of Dryland Agriculture, Mekelle University,
Mekelle, Ethiopia

Dr. Ezenwa, I. A.
Department of Industrial Physics
Anambra State University, Uli
Anambra State, Nigeria

Language Editors
Dr. B. J. Ojo
Senior Programmes & Projects Officer, African Academy of Languages (ACALAN)
African Union Commission, BP 10 Koulouba-Bamako, Mali
babaojo2002@yahoo.com

Dr Justina Anyadiegwu
Department of English
Nwafor Orizu College of Education,
Nsugbe, Anambra State, Nigeria

Managing/Communications Editor
Dr. Nneka Umera-Okeke
Department of English Studies, University of Port Harcourt,
Rivers State, Nigeria
E-mail: afrrevonline@yahoo.com; jafrrev@yahoo.com

Technical Editor
Godspower I. Akawuku
KP Technologies Ltd., Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

Creative Commons License
AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology by International Association of African Researchers and Reviewers is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.